• Science and History: Did You Know?
     Making a Difference in Environmental Science  
    • California writer John Muir founds the Sierra Club. The group promotes the setting aside of wild areas as national parks. Muir's actions led to the establishment of Yosemite National Park.
    John Muir
    • President Theodore Roosevelt establishes the first National Wildlife Refuge on Pelican Island, Florida, to protect the brown pelican.
     Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir
    • Forestry scientist Gifford Pinchot is appointed the first director of the United States Forest Service. His goal is to manage forests scientifically to meet current and future lumber needs.
     Gifford Pinchot
    • Naturalists Aldo Leopold publishes A Sand County Almanac. This classic book links wildlife management to the science of ecology.
     Aldo Leopold
    • Biologist Rachel Carson writes Silent Spring, which describes the harmful effects of pesticides on the environment. The book raises awareness of how human activities can affect the environment.

     Rachel Carson
    • Marjory Stoneman Douglas founds Friends of the Everglades. This grassroots organization is dedicated to preserving the unique Florida ecosystems.
     Margory Stoneman Douglas
    • Biologist Wangari Maathai founds the Green Belt Movement. This organization encourages restoring forests in Kenya and other African nations.
     Wangari Maathai